Main Components of a Building Automation System

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The main goal of a building automation system is to heighten building efficiency, reduce bills and increase safety and comfort. Building automation systems control various areas within a building’s structure, for example, ventilation, heating, air conditioning and security. A centralised building management combines all of these parts together.

The main components of a Building Automation System

Building Automation Systems can be put in place either during building construction or through a ‘retrofitting’ process if it’s an existing structure. It takes five component categories to create a smart building environment.

Terminal interface

Users can view and interact with the Building Automation System through this interface. It displays information so users can monitor the condition and atmosphere of the building. They can also choose to override settings manually, depending on your requirements.


The controller acts as the “brain” of the Building Automation System. It collects data from the sensors and then sends commands to HVAC units, lighting systems, security alarms and other connected parts.

Output devices

When the controller sends out a command, relays go into action to follow the requirements and orders. For instance, they can reduce or increase the heating in a particular part of the building if there’s a meeting for example, dim or turn off lights in unused areas, or turn on the air conditioning before visitors arrive.


These devices track humidity, temperature, number of occupants and lighting levels. There are other possibilities depending on your supplier and requirements. The sensors transmit this information to centralised controllers.

Communication protocols

Building Automation Systems use a specific language that’s understood only by the system’s individual components. BACnet and Modbus are the most commonly used options in the industry.

If you’re looking to learn more about what a Building Automation System is, and how it can benefit your business, get in touch with AXON today.

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